Antibiotics for Urinary Tract Infections

Antibiotics for Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria and antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria that cause the infection as well as reduce the reoccurrence of it. The antibiotic course is given to the following people who:

  • Are pregnant and have UTIs that are recurring in nature.
  • Have been having a lot of UTIs, which is especially the case with women.
  • Have had a kidney transplant.
  • Are having surgery that involves the urinary tract.
  • Have a nervous system disorder that affects urination or have a spinal cord injury.

Antibiotics are an effective method of getting rid of UTIs and it is recommended that one should complete the full course of antibiotics that is recommended. If you stop the treatment before you are supposed to then you may cause a relapse of the infection. Usually, the infection starts to clear after a day or two of antibiotics.

Side Effects of AntibioticsBladder infection- Causes and Treatment

Antibiotics have side effects. Many people don’t feel them or can cope with them. One can read about the side effects that may be caused by the product or can ask the pharmacist about them.

Most of the time the side effects aren’t severe and the importance of the medicine taken should be given precedence. However, if the side effects persist then it is recommended that one consult a doctor. The doctor will either change the medicine or reduce the dosage of that medicine.

One should call for emergency services if there is a swelling on the throat, face, lips or tongue or if there is trouble breathing.

One should call a doctor as soon as the following symptoms are noticed:

  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • chills
  • fever

There are a few side effects that are common when taking antibiotics:

  • vaginal inflammation
  • tiredness
  • Diarrhoea
  • mild stomach pains
  • headaches
  • dizziness

Things to Remember

Bladder infection- Causes and TreatmentMany antibiotics make the skin sensitive and therefore one should take care when going out in the sun as well as take precautions by wearing long-sleeved clothing. Use a sunscreen with SPF that a doctor has recommended. Always keep in mind that the medicine that has been prescribed is taken at the right time, in the correct dosages and at the right intervals. Antibiotics are the right path to take if you are not well and your doctor suggests it. However, beware of the dangers of self-medication, as we might not understand certain symptoms that can be indicative of a far more dangerous underlying disease or infection.

It is important to consult a doctor and to continue the treatment until it has run its course. If there are side effects, as mentioned in the above section, be sure to consult a doctor immediately and not try to find a solution on your own.

Causes of Frequent Urination

Causes of Frequent Urination

Frequent urination is the need to urinate more than one does normally and it can be an inconvenience, as well as can be an indicator of an infection in the urinary tract.

Below are twenty five possible causes that can be linked to frequent urination:

  1. Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys, but can develop anywhere along your urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Kidney stones are known to be one of the most painful medical conditions.
  2. Urethritis is a condition that affects the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder so it can be expelled from the body. Semen also passes through the male urethra. The core cause of urethritis is usually infection. This can cause the urethra to become irritated and inflamed.
  3. Causes of Urinary UrgencyMenopause is a biological process which is natural and occurs in every woman’s life. This can also lead to frequent urination.
  4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur in any part of the urinary tract. Bacteria cause the vast majority of UTIs, but fungi or viruses can also cause them. UTIs are the second most common type of infection.
  5. Bladder stones are small mineral masses that develop in the bladder when the urine becomes concentrated. Generally, they pass out of the body naturally, however, further complications can occur if left untreated.
  6. Benign Prostate Enlargement is when the prostate gland is only found in men and is normally about the size of a walnut. It lies immediately below the bladder and just above the penis. A tube called the urethra, which carries urine from your bladder, passes through the center of the prostate gland. An enlarged prostate can press on the urethra, which causes narrowing or blockage in the tube and prevents your urine from flowing normally.
  7. Bladder Neck Obstruction is the pressure caused by the abnormal size of the prostate strains the bladder. In some cases, bladder neck obstruction may be a side effect of surgery to remove the prostate, or radiation treatments used to treat prostate cancer.
  8. In some cases, the bladder contracts when it should not, causing some urine to leak through the sphincter muscles. It is also known as overactive bladder, bladder spasms, spasmodic bladder, irritable bladder, or detrusor instability.
  9. Causes of Urinary UrgencyBladder infection, also called cystitis, occurs within the bladder. Some people call a bladder infection a UTI.
  10. Cystitis occurs when the bladder gets inflamed and it is not only caused by bacteria but can also be caused by certain drugs, exposure to radiation, or exposure to other irritants such as a long-term catheter use or spermicidal jellies.
  11. An overactive bladder is a problem that causes a sudden urge to urinate. These urges may or may not cause urine to leak out of the bladder, as they are difficult to stop. When leakage occurs, it is called urinary incontinence (UI) and is defined as the involuntary loss of urine.
  12. Cancer that grows in the tissue of the bladder.
  13. Neurogenic bladder is a condition caused by the nerves between the bladder and the brain not working properly. This can be due to a brain disorder or bladder nerve damage.
  14. Interstitial cystitis occurs in the bladder when there is chronic inflammation which leads to pelvic and abdominal pain.
  15. Prostatitis- The prostate is a small gland located under the bladder in men. It produces a fluid that makes up between 50 and 75 percent of semen.
  16. Urethral stricture is a medical condition that mainly affects men. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), very few women get urethral strictures. In addition, very few individuals are born with this condition.
  17. Autonomic neuropathy is a condition that is caused by damage to the nerves that assist an organ’s functioning. This nerve damage disturbs signal processing between the autonomic nervous system and the brain. When your autonomic nerves are injured, your blood pressure, heart rate, perspiration, bowel movements, bladder emptying, and digestion may be affected.
  18. Causes of Urinary UrgencyAcute pyelonephritis is a sudden and severe kidney infection. This condition causes the kidneys to swell, can permanently damage the kidneys, and can even be life-threatening.
  19. Hydronephrosis is blockage in one of your ureters, the tubes that connect your kidneys to your bladder.
  20. Autonomic dysreflexia, also known as autonomic hyperreflexia, is a condition where the involuntary nervous system overreacts to external stimuli.
  21. Ovarian cancer is also one of the causes that result in frequent urination.
  22. Reiter’s syndrome is a medical condition typically affecting young men, characterized by arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis, and is caused by an unknown pathogen, possibly chlamydia.
  23. Prostatitis which can be caused by a bacterial urinary tract infection. STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause acute bacterial prostatitis.
  24. Acetone poisoning is rare. The body is capable of breaking down large amounts of acetone naturally. Therefore, for overexposure to occur, very large amounts must be produced, ingested, or inhaled. Acetone poisoning can be caused by metabolic diseases, starvation, or chemical exposure. The symptoms of acetone poisoning include headaches, dizziness, and, in rare cases, death.
  25. Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the body’s immune system is directed against the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves.



The infection Cystitis occurs when the bladder gets inflamed. It happens when bacteria enter your bladder through your urethra, the tube that carries urine out of your body. Cystitis is a common type of lower urinary tract infection. Your urinary tract consists of your kidneys, two ureters, the tubes that connect each kidney to your bladder, your bladder and your urethra.

Cystitis is caused by a bacterial infection that can be caused by a variety of sources and may also be triggered by having sex. It’s most common in women, but it can affect men and young children too. Doctors believe it’s less common in men because they have longer urethras and bacteria have further to travel to reach the bladder. Up to 4 in 10 women will have a bout of cystitis at some point in their lifetime.Cystitis


  • pain when you pass urine
  • a frequent, urgent need to urinate, but you only pass small amounts of urine or no urine at all
  • cloudy, dark or strong smelling urine
  • blood in your urine
  • pain during sex
  • pain in your lower abdomen or lower back
  • feeling tired or generally unwell
  • mild fever

Overall, the symptoms of cystitis are similar for men and women. Some children may develop a fever, have a reduced appetite and may have bouts of vomiting. Young children may feel unwell but have no other symptoms, so if your child has a fever or you think he or she might have cystitis, contact a doctor for advice. It’s important to seek medical attention as soon as possible because these symptoms may be caused by other, more serious conditions.


CystitisCystitis usually clears up on its own. However, if are experiencing the symptoms of cystitis, it’s a good idea to consult a doctor. If your symptoms get worse or don’t improve within two to three days, contact your doctor for advice. He or she will be able to rule out any other conditions that could be causing your symptoms. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and examine you and may also ask you about your medical history. A sample of your urine might be tested using a ‘dipstick’. Depending on the results, a sample of your urine may be sent to a laboratory for further tests.

You can sometimes have cystitis but have no symptoms which is particularly common if you’re older. Your cystitis may only be discovered when you have a urine test for other reasons, or you develop a kidney infection or fever.


Cystitis usually clears up by itself without the need for treatment. However, there are several things that you can do to reduce the symptoms and feel better.

Taking over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, may help ease the pain. They may also help if you have a fever or a temperature.

Increase how much water you drink to help flush out the infection.

Placing a warm hot water bottle on your lower back can help soothe any discomfort in this area.

Try to rest as much as possible.

If the symptoms continue for longer than two to three days, consult a doctor. He or she may prescribe antibiotics to reduce the symptoms and get rid of the infection.

UTIs vs. STDs

The Difference Between Urinary Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Urinary Tract Infections and Sexually Transmissible Diseases often mimic each other and it is difficult to tell the difference. In this article, we will discuss what these two infections are, which symptoms can be experienced and what should be done to treat them.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common, particularly in women, babies and the elderly. Around 1 in 2women and 1 in 20 men will get a UTI at some point in their life. The kidneys control the amount of water in the blood and filter out waste products to form urine. Each kidney has a tube called a ureter, which joins the kidney to the bladder. The urine leaves the kidneys through the ureters and enters the bladder. The bladder ‘signals’ the urge to urinate and urine leaves the body through a tube called the urethra. The urinary system is designed to minimize the risk of serious infection in the kidneys and it does this by preventing the urine from flowing back up into the kidneys. The majority of urinary tract infections are confined to the bladder and while they cause painful symptoms, they are not serious or life threatening.Difference between Urinary Tract Infections and Sexually Transmissible Infections


  • A burning feeling when you urinate
  • A frequent or intense urge to urinate, even though little comes out when you do
  • Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen
  • Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling urine
  • Feeling tired or shaky
  • Fever or chills

Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs) are infections that can be passed from one person to another by having vaginal, anal or oral sex.  Most STDs are transmitted through the exchange of sexual fluids and genital contact. STDs can cause a wide range of health problems, from mild irritations to more serious illness. Pregnant women with an STD can pass it on to their unborn child. Some STDs are easily cured with antibiotics if detected early, but can cause long-term problems if left untreated.

SymptomsDifference between Urinary Tract Infections and Sexually Transmissible Infections

  • Sores or blisters on the genitals, on or around the anus, or mouth
  • Irregular growths or warts on the genital area
  • Vaginal or penile discharge which may be unusual-smelling or discoloured
  • Genital itching
  • Pain when urinating or having a bowel movement
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after sexual intercourse
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Pain or swelling of the glands in the groin area
  • Rash

Treatment of both UTIs and STDs

The doctor will look into the medical history of the patient and according to that will examine the pelvic. The doctor might want a sample of the urine and if the results show a bacterial infection, the patient will be put on a course of antibiotics. Infections like chlamydia and gonorrhoea are treatable through antibiotics. However, if the test shows the HIV virus or herpes then the doctor will put the patient on an antiviral medication.

It is possible to get a UTI from sex and the trouble is that UTIs and STDs mimic each other. The symptoms might be similar and therefore it is recommended that one consults a doctor in the case of discomfort.

Different Types of Infections

The Difference between an Overactive Bladder, Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Tract Infection

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to urinate. So much so that it can negatively affect a person’s life. The frequent need to urinate may occur during the day, at night, or both. If there is a loss of bladder control then it is known as urge incontinence. More than 40% of people with an overactive bladder have incontinence, while about 40% to 70% of urinary incontinence is due to overactive bladder. It is not life-threatening and most people with the condition may have problems for years.

The Difference between Overactive bladder, Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Tract InfectionThe cause of an overactive bladder is unknown. Risk factors include obesity, caffeine, and constipation. Poorly controlled diabetes, poor functional mobility, and chronic pelvic pain may make the symptoms worse. People often have the symptoms for a long time before they seek treatment and the condition is sometimes identified by caregivers.

A diagnosis is based on a person’s symptoms and requires other problems such as urinary tract infections or neurological conditions need to be ruled out. The amount of urine passed is relatively small and will likely be accompanied by pain, which suggests that there is a problem other than  an overactive bladder.

Urinary Incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is the leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on your quality of life. Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is rarely discussed with a medical practitioner. Enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence, primarily in children, such as bed wetting.

The most common types of urinary incontinence in women are stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Women with both problems have a mixed urinary incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence is caused by loss of support of the urethra which is usually a consequence of damage to pelvic support structures after childbirth. It is characterized by leaking small amounts of urine with activities which increase abdominal pressure such as coughing, sneezing and lifting. Additionally, frequent exercise can cause athletic incontinence to develop. Urge urinary incontinence is caused by uninhibited contractions of the detrusor muscle and is characterized by leaking large amounts of urine without any previous warning to get to the bathroom in time.

The Difference between Overactive bladder, Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Tract InfectionUrinary Tract Infection (UTI), also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection, is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection. Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include painful urination and either frequent urination, the urge to urinate or both. The symptoms of pyelonephritis include fever and flank pain in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.

In some cases, a painful burning sensation in the urethra may be present even when not urinating. In the elderly and children, symptoms may be vague or non-specific. The main causal agent of both types is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria, viruses or fungi may sometimes be the cause.

Urinary tract infections occur more commonly in women than in men, with half of women having at least one infection at some point in their lives. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse and family history. Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on symptoms alone. For those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. In complicated cases or if a tried treatment has failed, a urine culture may be useful. For those who suffer from frequent infections, low dose antibiotics may be taken as a preventative measure.