Catheter Associated UTIs

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection: Causes and Treatment

If you have a catheter, germs can travel along the catheter and cause an infection in your bladder or your kidneys, which is called a catheter-associated urinary tract infection or “CA-UTI”.  Germs can enter the urinary tract when the catheter is being put in or while the catheter remains in the bladder. If germs enter the urinary tract, they may cause an infection, so people with urinary catheters have a much higher chance of getting a urinary tract infection than people who don’t have a catheter.Many of the germs that cause a catheter-associated urinary tract infection are common germs found in your intestines that do not usually cause an infection.

A urinary catheter is a thin tube placed in the bladder to drain the urine. Urine drains through the tube into a bag that collects it. A urinary catheter may be used:

  • If you are not able to urinate on your own
  • To measure the amount of urine that you make, for example, during intensive care
  • During and after some types of surgery
  • During certain medical tests of the kidneys and bladder.

SymptomsCatheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection – Causes and Treatment

Some of the common symptoms of a urinary tract infection are:

  • Burning or pain in the lower abdomen, that is, below the stomach
  • Fever
  • Bloody urine
  • Burning during urination or an increase in the frequency of urination after the catheter is removed.


It is through testing of the urine that a CAUTI can be diagnosed and if blood cells are found in the urine then it is diagnosed as an infection. Holding in your urine increases the chances of an infection, as that results in keeping bacteria inside the bladder.


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection – Causes and TreatmentThis infection is more dangerous that a regular UTI and therefore, an effective treatment is required to stop the infection from spreading. If the infection is severe, you may need to receive antibiotics through an intravenous line or IV.

Drinking a lot of water should help to help flush bacteria out of your bladder, so if you are treating yourself at home, this may mean drinking 2 – 3 quarts of fluid a day.

Avoid fluids that irritate your bladder, such as alcohol, citrus juices, and drinks that contain caffeine.

After you have finished your treatment, you will have another urine test to make sure the bacteria are gone.


In order to prevent the infection from happening in the first place, it is necessary to see whether there is a need for a catheter. If it is found to be absolutely necessary, then precautions should be taken to maintain hygiene, there should be regular cleaning of the skin which is near the catheter and care should be taken to clean the bag that contains the urine several times a day.

If you follow these precautions then you can reduce the chances of contracting this infection.

Overactive Bladder: Foods to Avoid

Ten Foods that Cause an Overactive Bladder

An overactive bladder is caused by an infection that creates the need to urinate frequently. The urge may be difficult to stop, and an overactive bladder may lead to the involuntary loss of urine.  There are several foods that can harm the urinary system and we have discussed ten of them here.

  1. Eleven Foods that cause Overactive BladderTomatoes: tomatoes have a high acidic content and can create an irritation in the bladder and this can further lead to an overactive bladder. One should avoid foods that are high in tomato content like ketchup, salsa and pizza sauce.
  2. Coffee or Tea: these two beverages can lead to an increase in the bladder’s activity and result in a person feeling the need to urinate more and more often. This can be reduced significantly if one can reduce the intake of these two drinks.
  3. Chocolate: similar to the case of an overactive bladder due to tea and coffee, a piece of chocolate can result in increasing the activity of the bladder. One can have white chocolate instead, as that does not contain caffeine.
  4. Citrus fruits: fruits like lemons, limes, grapefruits and oranges contain high amounts of citric acid. Citric acid can create problems like an overactive bladder, whereas fruits like apples and bananas are less acidic and therefore can be consumed instead of citric ones.
  5. Alcohol: consuming alcohol causes the brain to receive a signal that the bladder is full, even if it is not.Eleven Foods that cause Overactive Bladder
  6. Carbonated drinks: in drinks like soda water, energy drinks and soft drinks the fizz that is created can increase the symptoms of an overactive bladder. Drinks like champagne which contain both fizz and the alcohol can cause a lot of problems.
  7. Spicy Foods: completely avoid foods like sauces, peppers and salsa which are spicy in nature.
  8. Sweeteners: research studies show that sweeteners which are either natural or artificial can result in problems like an overactive bladder.
  9. Processed foods: these types of foods have ingredients that are artificial like preservatives and flavors, which can potentially cause irritation and aggravate the bladder.
  10. Onions: opt for cooked onions as opposed to raw ones since they do not cause any problems.

In order to prevent an overactive bladder, it is necessary to drink the proper amount of water. If one drinks more than required, it can result in frequent urination, but if the intake is less, then the urine can get acidic and force one to go to the bathroom several times.

Apart from this, you should also maintain a food diary where you can write down and keep track of the foods that you eat. This preventative plan can go a long way in determining which types of foods are causing you to suffer from an overactive bladder. Once you have determined which foods there are, they should be avoided. On the other hand, the ones that don’t can be safely consumed.

Seven Remedies for Bladder Infections

Seven Remedies for Bladder Infections

Bladder infections are known as cystitis or inflammation of the bladder. They are common in women but very rare in men and more than half of all women will get at least one bladder infection at some point in their lives. However, a man’s chance of getting cystitis increases as he ages, due an increase in the prostate’s size. Bladder infections are not serious if treated right away, but they tend to come back. Rarely, this can lead to kidney infections, which are more serious and may result in permanent kidney damage. So it’s very important to treat the underlying causes of a bladder infection and to take preventive steps to keep them from returning.

Following are the seven remedies that can go a long way in not only treating a bladder infection, but preventing it as well.

  1. Seven Remedies for Bladder InfectionDrink a lot of water. Water is the best and the safest method to get rid of the infection. It dilutes the urine and empties out the bladder. There are two kinds of urine, one is dark, concentrated and painful to pass while the other one is lighter, easy to pass and does not burn. One should avoid drinking tea, coffee or soda as they can further irritate the bladder.
  1. One should urinate frequently as that helps in flushing out the bacteria. If the urine is held back, then it increases the chances of bacteria proliferating inside the bladder. It is suggested to urinate after having sex, as it prevents the bacteria from getting pushed inside the urethra.
  2. In few cases the infection resolves itself and the symptoms might go away after a day or two. Drinking a lot of water as well as frequently urinating can also assist this process. A doctor may prescribe antibiotics if the infection is a serious one and the duration of the treatment will depend on the severity of the infection.
  3. Seven Remedies for Bladder InfectionAlthough antibiotics will work on removing the infection, there can pain caused by the infection in the pelvic region and for that, pain relievers will be required. The doctor should able to recommend a few pain relievers that can be bought at your local pharmacy. These pain relievers will provide instant relief from the pain.
  4. If the medicines don’t work it is recommended to use a heating pad to get the much needed relief from the pain that is caused by the infection.
  5. It is important to wear loose-fitting clothing as that prevents moisture from getting trapped in your body and prevents the growth of bacteria. It is advisable to wear free flowing cotton clothes for the body to be able to breathe.
  6. Studies have shown that cranberry juice really helps get rid of a bladder infection and cures UTIs in women, but has yet to be scientifically proven.

Bladder infections are not serious and can easily be treated with medication. Medical scientists are working on a vaccine against these infections but it is obvious that one can depend on the doctor’s advice and follow the above-mentioned steps.

Causes of Urethral Discharge

The Causes of Urethral Discharge

There are a few causes of urethral discharge and tests may be done in order to determine the reason behind your specific case. The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus to remove fluids from the body. In men, the urethra travels through the penis and carries semen as well as urine. The tests that are conducted are designed for men and male children.

Most often, a urethra test will be recommended by your doctor to check if there are existing symptoms which can lead to an infection in the genital tract. The following are the symptoms.

  • swelling or redness around the urethraUrethral Discharge- Causes
  • a sore throat
  • discharge from the urethra
  • swollen testicles
  • painful urination
  • increased urine frequency

The test for checking a urinary infection is performed to check for the presence of an infection and although the procedure is a quick one, it can be a bit uncomfortable and can also be slightly painful.

Below are few causes that may possibly result in urethral discharge.

Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra and is accompanied by pain when urinating. That’s the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Urethritis is commonly due to infection by bacteria and it can typically be cured with antibiotics.

Urethral Discharge- CausesUrinary Tract Infections are caused when the bladder is not completely emptied or something irritates the urinary tract. UTIs are the second most common type of infection in humans and The National Kidney & Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) reports that UTIs account for over 8 million doctor visits annually.

Trichomoniasis is an infection caused by parasitic trichomonads, chiefly affecting the urinary tract, vagina, or digestive system and is a sexually transmitted disease. Symptoms usually appear between 5 to 28 days after being infected, although they can develop at any time. It is not unusual for symptoms to be sporadic.

Reactive Arthritis is a medical condition typically affecting young men, characterized by arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis, and is caused by an unknown pathogen, possibly chlamydia. The following three conditions are combined:

(1) arthritis; (2) inflammation of the eyes (conjunctivitis); and (3) inflammation of the genital, urinary or gastrointestinal systems.

Chlamydia Infection – People suffering from chlamydia often show no external symptoms in the early stages which might make you think that you shouldn’t worry. However, chlamydia can cause health problems in the more advanced stages, including preventing women from getting pregnant or even endangering their ongoing pregnancy. Since it is a sexually transmitted disease, if you have unprotected sex with someone whose STI status you’re not certain of, get tested for chlamydia and other STIs as soon as possible.

Urethral stricture – is a medical condition that mainly affects men. According to research studies, very few women get urethral strictures and very few individuals are born with this condition. Urethral stricture occurs specifically in the urethra. The  urethra is a tube that carries urine from the bladder so that it can be expelled from the body. In healthy men, the urethra is wide enough for urine to flow freely through it. Urethral stricture occurs when there is a narrowing of the urethra and the urinary flow can be slightly or severely restricted.

Causes and Treatment of UTIs

The Causes and Treatment of a UTI

Acute cystitis or bladder infection, commonly known as urinary tract infection, affects parts of the urinary tract. The urinary system, also known as the renal system, consists of the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys. These organs produce, collect and eliminate urine from the body.  When infected, it can cause a bladder infection and in severe cases, a kidney infection.

When the urinary tract gets infected, the following are the three types of infection that can occur.

  1. What is a Urinary Tract Infection- Causes and TreatmentCystitis is a bacterial infection that causes your bladder to become inflamed. It happens when bacteria enter your bladder through your urethra, the tube that carries urine out of your body.
  2. Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. Pain when urinating is the main symptom of urethritis.
  3. Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney tissue, calyces, and renal pelvis. It is commonly caused by bacterial infection that has spread up the urinary tract or travelled through the bloodstream to the kidneys.

Symptoms of UTIs

These are the symptoms one should look out for:

  • wanting to urinate more often and urgently, if only a few drops
  • burning pain or a scalding sensation when urinating
  • a feeling that the bladder is still full after urinating
  • pain above the pubic bone
  • blood in the urine

What is a Urinary Tract Infection- Causes and TreatmentTo find out if you have a UTI, your doctor will need to test a clean sample of your urine. The doctor or nurse will give you a clean plastic cup and a special wipe. Wash your hands before opening the cup. When you open the cup, don’t touch the inside of the lid or the inside of the cup. Put the cup in easy reach. Separate the labia, the outer lips of the vagina, with one hand and with your other hand, clean the genital area with the wipe. Wipe from front to back and do not touch or wipe the anus. While still holding the labia open, pass a little bit of urine into the toilet. Then, catch the rest in the cup. This is called a “clean-catch” sample. Let the rest of the urine fall regularly into the toilet.

If you are prone to UTIs, your doctor may want to x-ray or ultrasound your urinary tract. These can help show swelling, stones, or blockage. Your doctor also may want to look inside your bladder using a cystoscope, which is a small tube that’s put into the urethra to see inside of it and the bladder.


Often, symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. You may need to continue antibiotics for a week or more and be sure to take the entire course of antibiotics, as prescribed. For an uncomplicated UTI that occurs when you’re otherwise healthy, your doctor may recommend a shorter course of treatment, such as taking an antibiotic for one to three days. Whether this short course of treatment is enough to treat your infection depends on your particular symptoms and medical history. It is advisable that one consults a doctor when in discomfort to prevent an infection from worsening or spreading.